The pedagogy of inclusion applied to the Physical Education class

EDUMECENTRO 2023;15:e2372



The pedagogy of inclusion applied to the Physical Education class

La pedagogía de la inclusión aplicada a la clase de Educación Física


Lourdes Rodríguez Pérez1*
Xenia Mónica Aguiar Santiago2
Daniela Milagro Palacio González3
Gonzalo Ramos Alfonso2


1 "Marta Abreu" Central University of Las Villas. Department of Didactics of Physical Education and Recreation. Villa Clara. Cuba.
2 "Marta Abreu" Central University of Las Villas. Department of Applied Sports Sciences. Villa Clara. Cuba.
3 Municipal Directorate of Education. Primary School "Osvaldo Socarrás". Santa Clara. Villa Clara. Cuba.


* Corresponding author. Email:




The pedagogy of inclusion seeks to train people from the perspective of their individuality, taking into account their social interaction. For the Cuban school it is a challenge because it requires changes in the way of interacting, investigating and offering learning opportunities considering the diversity of needs and the differences in contexts, as a more viable alternative to provide an individualized, comprehensive and diversified educational response. Physical Education is one of the subjects in the curriculum that has a high responsibility to educate from diversity, but for this, teachers must be trained in the educational demands to be met. The authors propose some methodological actions already applied so that they constitute shared experiences among the teachers of the specialty in their classes.

MeSH: quality of life; learning; faculty; education, professional.


La pedagogía de la inclusión persigue formar personas desde la perspectiva de su individualidad, teniendo en cuenta su interacción social. Para la escuela cubana es un reto porque requiere cambios en la forma de interactuar, investigar y ofrece oportunidades de aprendizaje considerando la diversidad de necesidades y las diferencias de contextos, como alternativa más viable para proporcionar una respuesta educativa individualizada, comprensiva y diversificada. La Educación Física es una de las materias del currículo que tiene una alta responsabilidad de educar desde la diversidad, pero para ello los docentes deben capacitarse en las exigencias educativas a satisfacer. Los autores proponen algunas acciones metodológicas ya aplicadas a fin de que constituyan experiencias compartidas entre los docentes de la especialidad en sus clases.

DeCS: calidad de vida; aprendizaje; docentes; educación profesional.



Submitted: 21/03/2022
Accepted: 13/01/2023



In recent decades, along significant epistemological, political, sociocultural and ethical changes, the discourse of diversity education or diversity pedagogy has made its way as a response to the need to defend culture, roots and projections of each country. before a scourge that tries to dominate the world: neoliberal globalization, as a direct source of avoiding the differences between people, social classes and countries; therefore, diversity comes from a more general framework.(1)

Diversity demands raising the level of awareness in relation to gender issues and increasing actions in favor of true equity in its approach, and fosters the rise of the movement for the school and social integration of people with needs. Special educational institutions and the growing recognition of the validity of personalized approaches to the teaching-learning process in the pedagogical currents of this century.(2)

To achieve this purpose, it is necessary to produce a change in the Cuban educational system, conceived from a development perspective that promotes the search for educational efficiency in correspondence with global, regional and national scenarios. Among the great challenges it faces are those that emanate from the contradictions between the massiveness of education and the search for excellence, and between the necessary unity of the educational system and the diversity of people, and the conditions and aspirations of the protagonists of the teaching-learning process.(3)

For the Cuban school, education within diversity is a challenge because it requires changes in the way of interacting, investigating and offering learning opportunities, considering the diversity of needs and the differences in contexts as more viable alternatives to provide an individualized educational response, comprehensive and diversified.

Inclusive pedagogy seeks to train people from the perspective of their individuality, taking into account their social interaction. It is not a fashion, it cannot be postponed to apply it to live in peace, and it is applicable from all disciplines and subjects of the most diverse subject programs.(4,5)

Physical Education is one of the subjects in the curriculum that has a high responsibility for educating in personal satisfaction and improving what is natural to maintain high levels of self-concept (elements that the person uses to describe himself), and self-esteem (results from the combination of the objective information that one has about himself and the subjective evaluation that he makes of the information); therefore, it includes evaluative and affective aspects towards oneself.

To promote attention to individual differences and guarantee the inclusion of all, the Physical Education class must be conceived under the comprehensive physical-educational approach whose fundamental premise is to conceive the student as an active subject, builder of his own learning.(6)

In Physical Education classes, individual differences are highlighted by multiple factors. The most obvious are: height, body weight and muscle strength recognizable with the naked eye; while others require systematic observation and the use of scientific methods, techniques and instruments: motivation, socio-cultural conditions, etc. Faced with a traditional Physical Education, equal for all, characterized by direct command, individual differences are usually forgotten, which adversely affects the weakest or delays the development of the most advantaged.(5)

These conceptions require a Physical Education teacher capable of being a counselor, a researcher, a creator within the teaching-learning process to respond to the need to achieve integrality in diversity. It must be able to materialize, through concrete ways, a comprehensive physical-educational approach, in a diversity where the individual and social differences of the students are present, as well as the diversity of contexts where this process takes place.(6)

It is considered that in order to scientifically address this problem and understand what it means to achieve Integrality in diversity, it is necessary to start from the historical-cultural approach as a premise of the pedagogical conception and understand the relationship between learning and development.

It is essential to lead Physical Education teachers to think and act differently, promoting exchange, conscious, productive and creative participation of their students in their classes. Guide, but let it be done, propose tasks that students have to solve by applying knowledge, interrelating both in class and outside of it, with other options such as assisting in participatory sports in their spare time in parks or sports areas, to contribute to their physical, social, intellectual, political and labor formation.

To guide the pedagogical and didactic actions, teachers must be trained in the educational requirements to be satisfied. The school institution must guarantee the participation of the entire educational community in meeting their needs, since the inclusion of all students avoids exclusive educational practices.(5)

The 21st century school must be characterized by its permanent renewal and optimization of the educational process in which intellectual, creative, physical and aesthetic development occupies an important space; all this as an approach to human excellence.(1,3)

Physical Education in the face of these demands is committed to:

  • Preserve, develop and promote the health of the population through the practice of physical activity.
  • Stimulate students to have better performance in the use of movement, in such a way that they can transfer what they learn in Physical Education to life.
  • Address the physical-educational phenomenon in its social historical context to achieve a higher quality by applying the pedagogy of diversity.

In a first approach to the subject, the authors propose the following actions to be applied from Physical Education:

  • Recognize diversity as a modern phenomenon in school and social groups.
  • Adapt the teaching to the groups and not the groups to the teaching.
  • Carry out common methodological work at the different levels and cycles, where the management team, department heads and teachers intervene with proposals that are reflected in the planning, development and evaluation processes, taking into account the diversity of students.
  • Establish a cooperative teaching work focused on the study and joint reflection of the elements of the study plan, the programs and their methodological guidelines to determine whether or not they contribute to the inclusion of diversity in the discipline and subjects.
  • Include objectives directed to the treatment of diversity to advance in the improvement of the Physical Education class.
  • Apply the best didactic concepts that allow attending to diversity.
  • Study better forms of diagnosis revealing the differences of the students.

Inclusive pedagogy is prepared to include all students considering that diversity is a basic condition of the human being. From this perspective, the student integrates into a new space prepared for him and the school is defined as a place for diversity.



1. Rodríguez Pérez L, Pérez Luján D, Rodríguez García CE. La atención a la diversidad en el proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje de la Universidad de Ciencias de la cultura Física y el deporte, Facultad de Villa Clara. [Internet]. 2012 [citado 25/01/2022];17(173):[aprox. 7 p.]. Disponible en:

2. Baute Rosales M, Pérez Payrol VB, Espinoza de los Monteros MM. Estrategia de equidad de género en el entorno universitario. Rev Universidad y Sociedad [Internet]. 2017 [citado 24/01/2022];9(4):[aprox. 8 p.]. Disponible en:

3. Rodríguez Pérez L, Aguiar Santiago X. Estudio de casos aplicado a una experiencia de estimulación del talento en la formación universitaria. EDUMECENTRO [Internet]. 2021 [citado 21/03/2022];13(2):[aprox. 18 p.]. Disponible en:

4. Valdés Valdés I, Guerra Iglesias S, Camargo Ramos M. Las habilidades de interacción social: un puente hacia la inclusión. Mendive [Internet]. 2020 [citado 21/03/2022];18(1):[aprox. 18 p.].Disponible en:

5. Zayas Acosta RC, Vento Montieller O, Montesino de la Rosa P. Condicionantes de la Educación Física para la carrera de Educación Prescolar. Rev Podium [Internet]. 2020 [citado 14/01/2022];15(3):[aprox. 15 p.]. Disponible en:

6. Ruiz A. Teoría y metodología de la Educación Física y el deporte escolar. La Habana: Editorial Pueblo y Educación; 2012.



Declaration of interests

The authors declare no conflict of interest.



Contribution of the authors

Lourdes Rodríguez Pérez and Daniela Milagro Palacio González: conceptualized the idea, wrote the actions and the research paper report.
Xenia Mónica Aguiar Santiago and Gonzalo Ramos Alfonso: located and analyzed the bibliography associated with the subject, delimited it by vancouver and reviewed the wording of the article.

Copyright (c) 2023 EDUMECENTRO

Licencia de Creative Commons
Esta obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-CompartirIgual 4.0 Internacional.